Reviewer for Philippine Politics and Governance Senior High Schol

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Reviewer for Philippine Politics and Governance Senior High Schol

Politics- in general, it means organizing human activities.

  • Politics is all around.
  • Politics happens because of the need to make decisions in the complex world we live in.
  • According to Aristotle, “Man by nature is a political animal”. If it is true, then politics is not only common in our lives – it is unavoidable.

Elements of Politics:

  • Power
  • Rule
  • Authority
  • Influence

Governance- it refers to the way in which something is governed to meet objectives such as protecting its people, and acting in the country’s best interest.

State is a  group of people living in a definite territory, having a government of their own and enjoying their own independence.

Elements of State

1.People –  a mass of population or community of people living within the territorial jurisdiction of state.

2. Territory- The space within which the government exercise its supreme authority.

3. Government- agency through which the will of the state are formulated, expressed carried out.

4. Sovereignty–  the supreme power of the state to enforce its will upon its citizen through laws. It also means independence from the control of other states. It has two aspects:

  1. internal sovereignty- w/c means complete authority to rule over the people inside the state
  1. external sovereignty (often referred as independence) – which means independence from outside or foreign control.


Nation  - any large group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, or religion.

State v Nation

State is a political concept while nation is an ethnic concept.






Modes of Acquiring a Territory


  1. Discovery and Occupation- a state may acquire a territory by discovering a continent, an island or land with no inhabitants or occupied by uncivilized inhabitants and thereafter, occupying it, by placing it under its political administration.
  1. Prescription- it is a mode of acquiring territory through continuous and undisputed exercise of sovereignty over it during such period as it is necessary to create under the general conviction that the present condition  of things is in conformity with international order.
  1. Cession – it is the assignment, transfer or yielding up of territory by one state or government to another. It may be in a form of sale or donation.
  1. Subjugation and annexation- it is  a mode of acquiring territory belonging to a state in the course of war and by annexation at the end of the war.
  1. Accretion- mode of acquiring territory by addition of portions of soil, either artificial or by gradual disposition through the operation of natural causes.




  1. Monarchy (ruled by one person)
  • where one person exercises sovereignty. It is the form of government in which the supreme and final authority is in the hands of a single person.
  1. Aristocracy- ( ruled by a few persons)
  • where political power is exercised by a privilege class known as the elite or oligarchs.

    3. Democracy ( ruled by many)

                - is one in which supreme power is vested  to the people . It is classified into two:

  1. direct democracy ( pure democracy)- is where people directly govern themselves
  1. indirect democracy (representative democracy) – is where people elect representatives to act in their behalf.



Demo – people / Kratos – power

Political Science- is a branch of social science that studies politics and state.

Subfields of Political Science

  1. National Politics - deals with the study of the structure of the government, its branches, the political system of the state, public opinon and elections.
  2. Comparative Politics – studies the politics and government of other countries
  3. International Relations – political cooperation among states, diplomatic relationships, international organizations and laws.
  4. Political Theory – defines what is good and what is bad government.

Example: Machiavelli

  1. Constitutional Law – studies the balance between the powers of the government and the rights of the people.
  2. Public Policy – focuses on the programs of the state to benefit the economy and the state as a whole.

Political Science is a social science.


Social science is the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around us.

The following are the Major branches of Social Science:

Psychology studies emotional and cognitive impacts of environments and relationships, and the reactions of human systems to emotional and cognitive changes.

Sociology – how we become members of groups, move between groups, and how being in different groups affects individuals and the groups in which they participate.

Political Science – how we identify ourselves as citizens of a particular nation, how we participate in our political structure, how it affects us, what motivates us to affiliate ourselves with certain points of view or parties.

Anthropology deals with of what it means to be human, through the understanding of modern cultures across the globe, the cultures of the past, languages, the human body, and our evolutionary history.


History – the interpretation of the past, how it affects our views of the present, understanding trends or the lack thereof in the past.

Economics – refers to the scientific study of human action, particularly as it relates to human choice and the utilization of scarce resources.

Political Phenomenon- any occurrence, events, or facts relating to politics.

Ideology - refers to a system of beliefs about how society should function, behave, and operate

Political Ideology is a set of related beliefs about political theory and policy held by an individual, group of individuals or a particular social class.

Major Political Ideologies

  1. Anarchism - The belief that the best government is absolutely no government. This ideology argues that everything about governments is repressive and therefore must be abolished entirely. 
  2. Absolutism - The belief that a single ruler should have control over every aspect of the government and of the people’s lives. 
  3. Liberalism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing individual rights and liberties
  4. Conservatism - A set of political beliefs based on preservation of customs and traditions that define the character of a society
  5. Socialism - A set of political beliefs emphasizing community and social equality

Political Power is:

  • The ability to shape and control the political behavior of others and to lead and guide their behavior in the direction desired by the person, group, or institution exercising the political power.
  • The capacity to influence, condition, mold, and control human behavior for the accomplishment of political objectives.

Major Forms of Political Power

1.  Political Authority - is governmental power.   It is the legally established power of the government to make rules and issue commands and to compel obedience to them, making use of physical force and coercion when deemed

necessary.   Political authority in short, is the legal right--the legally established power--to govern society.

2.  Political Influence - is the ability of private individuals and groups to impact on the government's making and implementation of official policy decisions.  It is a form of political power exercised by those who do not possess the formal-legal authority, but have and utilize the ability to condition, modify, and control the official decision-making behavior of those in government office who do possess the authority to make and implement the decisions.


  • heart of the nation
  • foundation of the government
  • blueprint of the government
  • fundamental law of the land
  • highest law of the land
  • basic law of the land

Constitution is a written instrument enacted by direct action of the people by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited and defined, and by which those powers are distributed among the several departments for their safe and useful exercise for the benefit of the body politic.

The Republic of the Philippines is using the 1987 Philippine Constitution also known as the Freedom Constitution.

Preamble – introduction to the constitution


“We, the sovereign Filipino, imploring the aid of Almighty God,  in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy, under the rule of law, and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.”

Articles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution

Article I                 National Territory

Article II                Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Article III              Bill of Rights

Article IV              Citizenship

Article V                Suffrage

Article VI              Legislative Department

Article VII             Executive Department

Article VIII            Judicial Department

Article IX               Constitutional Commissions

Article X                Local Government

Article XI               Accountability of Public Officers

Article XII             National Economy and Patrimony

Article XIII            Social Justice and Human Rights

Article XIV            Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports

Article XV             The Family

Article XVI            General Provisions

Article XVII           Amendments or Revisions

Article XVIII         Transitory Provisions

Article I: National Territory

Section 1. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breath and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

Article II: Declarations of Principles and State Policies

Basic Principles of the 1987 Philippine Constitution

  1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican state. Sovereignty and government authority belong to the people. ART II SEC 1
  1. The Philippines renounces war as an element of national policy ART II SEC 2
  1. Civilian authority is all times supreme over the military. ART II SEC 3
  1. The prime duty of the government is to serve and protect the people. ART II SEC 4
  1. The separation of church and state shall be at all times be upheld. ART II SEC 6
  1. The government shall provide social justice. ART II SEC 10

Article III: Bill of Rights


Basic rights that are recognized and protected by the Constitution:

  1. Right to due process of law (Art III Sec 1)
  2. Right against unreasonable search and seizure (Art III Sec 2)
  3. Right to privacy of communication and correspondence (Art III Sec 3)
  4. Right to travel and Liberty of abode (Art III Sec 6)
  5. Right to Assembly and Petition/ Right to form association (Art III Sec 8)

Article IV: Citizenship

It encapsulates the provisions that will answer the question: Who are the citizens of the Philippines?

Article V: Suffrage

Right to vote/Election


Article VI: Legislative Department

Philippine Congress is bicameral legislature which consists of :

Upper house: Senate

Lower house: House of Representatives

Article VII: Executive Department

President of the Philippines (qualifications, manner of voting, term of office, powers and limitations)


Article VIII: Judicial Department

  1. The Supreme Court
  1. Intermediate Appellate Court (Court of Appeals)
  1. Regional Trial Court (RTC)
  1. Municipal Trial Court (MTC), Municipal Circuit Trial Court

In addition to these regular courts, there are two special courts, namely:

  1.  Court of Tax Appeals
  1.  Sandiganbayan


 The Constitution also provides for two special legal bodies, namely:


  1.  Judicial and Bar Council
  1.  Ombudsman (Tanodbayan)

Article IX: Constitutional Commissions

  1. Commission on Elections
  2. Commission on Audit
  3. Civil Service Commission

Article X: Local Government

Political Subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines:

  1. Provinces
  2. Cities
  3. Municipalities
  4. Barangays

*** Autonomous Regions: ARMM and CAR

Article XI: Accountability of Public Officers


  • Impeachment
  • Sandiganbayan – anti-graft court
  • Ombudsman/Tanodbayan – investigates on its own any act or omission of any public official, employee, office or agency.

Article XII:  National Economy and Patrimony

  • Distribution of income, wealth and opportunities
  • Economy of the nation
  • Sustainable development
  • Industrialization and full employment
  • Agricultural Development
  • Agrarian Reform
  • Natural Resources

Article XII:  Social Justice and Human Rights

  • Human dignity
  • Reduce social, economic, and political inequalities
  • Remove cultural inequities
  • Social Justice – commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance

Article XIV:  Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports


  • Quality education
  • System of education
  • The study of constitution shall be part of the curricula of all educational institutions
  • Language: Filipino is the official language
  • Research and Development
  • Invention
  • Innovation
  • Preservation of arts and culture
  • Physical education
  • Sports Program
  • League competitions
  • Amateur sports
  • Regular sports activities in all educational institutions


Article XV:  The Family

  • Family is the foundation of the nation
  • Marriage
  • Family Rights and Duties

Article XVI:  General Provision

  • Flag
  • Name of the country
  • National anthem
  • National seal
  • Armed Forces of the Philippines
  • The State may not be sued without its consent
  • Ownership of mass media is limited to citizens of the Philippines

Article XVII: Amendments or Revisions

-Changing the constitution.

Article XVIII: Transitory Provisions:

- Provision about the first election of Philippine congress/ first local election

-Provisions about the revolutionary powers, legislative power of President (Cory Aquino)

Ignorantia Legis Neminem Excusat

“Ignorance of the law excuses no one”