Architectural Design of Apo Caligtan House

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I. Background
 
A. Literature
 
SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE
 
Spanish Colonial homes are built from indigenous components, has thick walls, stucco-clad walls, thick walls are used by Spanish to absorb the day’s heat and gently radiate it back into the building during the cool evenings. Spanish houses have smaller windows sealed by wrought iron grates rather than glass panes, are sited on the building to best capture breezes while avoiding the direct rays for the sun. wooden shutters, when present, are traditionally mounted on the inside of the home. One story or ranch style is one of the popular style of house in Spain during the Spanish colonial. Ornamentation on informal homes was often limited to arches on entranceways, principal windows and interior passageways. More elaborate homes might feature intricate stone or tile work, detailed chimneys and square towers. Wooden support beams support project out over the exterior walls in classic Spanish Colonials. Inner courtyard let the family move the cooking and its accompanying heat and steam outside. Today, these patios, porches and courtyards acts as informal gathering spots for the family and friends.
 
Spanish Colonial homes stucco-clad adobe walls are remarkably long-lasting in hot and arid climates. However, when located in colder, wetter climates adobe bricks can shrink and swell, causing the protective stucco to crack or pull away from the interior wall. These homes might require minor patches or complete resurfacing to prevent serious moisture problems. Cracked stucco can also be indicative of foundation issued (Burch, 2018). Many Spanish Colonials were built with flat roofs, which, when not drained properly, can leak. Clay-tile shingles are durable lifetime materials that require only periodic maintenance. Wooden timbers, both interior and exterior, should be inspired for moisture and insect damage.
 
Georgian Colonial architecture is the second type of architecture in the Colonial Architecture which is a rectangular, symmetrical and formal style. Georgian homes find their roots in both Italian Renaissance and the classical architecture of ancients Greece and Rome. These home are often marked by a centrally located front door, evenly spaced double-hung windows and simple side-gabled roof. These homes were ideally constructed of brick. But as you moved north toward New England, where brick was less common, wood-frame construction was dominant technique. The big, central chimney was literally the heart of the home. It provided heat to all the rooms clustered around it, as well as light and of course dinner. Cedar shingles on the exterior and the roof quickly shed rain and snow. Everything about the Cape Cod style was adopted for its function rather than its form. Most of the Cape Cod homes you see today were built after the World War II, when thousands of returning soldiers and their young families needed inexpensive housing. The Cape Cod style fit the bill, and it was used to build some of the first major housing development.
 
The large, central chimney is located directly behind the front door, with the rooms clustered around it in a rectangular shape. Cape Cod have steep roofs to quickly shed rain and snow, and a shallow roof overhang. A full Cape has two windows on each side of the door, and often has a dormer on each side of the chimney to open up the attic. Captain’s stairway or the second floor, often kept borders or seafaring men, was accessed by a narrow stair, which has incredibly steep risers and shallow treads to minimize the use of the first-floor space. Weathered gray shingles are one of the most recognizable elements of the classic Cape Cod, but newer homes are built of brick, stucco and stone. (Gray, n.d.) 
 
PHILIPPINES COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE
 
One of the lasting legacies of Spanish rule in the Philippines is the Antillean style of architecture. Common in many old residential houses, this architectural style can also be seen in convents, municipal and provincial offices as well as schools. With adobe walls as its structural foundation and wood as the main material for the large open layout top levels, the Hispanic style that originated from Central America was suitable for the Philippine climate, and especially against the natural disasters that constantly ravage it.despite the vestiges of Spanish, Chinese and Filipino influences in local culture, the bahay na bato ( Stone house, as the Antillean residential architecture was popularly called) is unique to the Philippines. The grandeur of structural materials, beauty of intricate details and opulence of the furniture are signs of affluence and the strature the family holds in society.
 
When the Americans came to the country at the turn of the 20th century, electric style and art Nouveau were introduced, adding significant alternations to the classic Antillean architecture. But it was the Art Deco movement that left the most impression, giving us architectural gems as in the Commonwealth Era mansions that survived the war. Philippine architecture has grown along with the progress of the nation and its people. But memories of a glorious past are still imbedded in a nation’s history. And if the walls of these old houses could only speak, they would be singing songs and poems from the tertulias and bailes that once filled its halls.
 
The mansions of the principalia class were known for their grandness in scale. Hence, a traditional bahay na bato would have large wooden doors called entrada pricipalia to let carriages enter the corridor. At ground level, there usually is a patio, with flooring of Piedra China or Chinese granite and the patterned hand- painted tiles imported from Spain called azulejo. The patio is used as a garden and serves to cool rooms of the house. Usually the patio is connected to the azotea, an open-air balcony where one can see the aljibe, the water cistern, filled with rainwater or portable water.
 
To enter the house, an Antillean door knocker can be used to inform the servants that someone is outside. Within the large wooden door is a smaller door for people, called postigo. A grand staircase called escalera welcomes the guests, leading them to the entrsuelo or mezzanine. In houses owned by the elites, there are rooms in the entresuelo that are reserved for the extended family of the owners or to visiting guests. But the main highlight of the entresuelo is the despacho, also known as oficina. This is where the owner of the house conducts business transactions together with his clerks and accountants. It is sensible that the office is located here as beside the zaguan below this level is the silong, where the goods and crops harvested from the hacienda are temporarily stored. (Zeballos, 2012)
The entersuelo leads to the antesala, also known as caida which means “to fall”, referring to the stair landing that connects the two levels. Here in the antesala, visitors are entertained. It is also where the masters of the house take their merienda (afternoon snacks).
 
Sala mayor is the most important part of the house for the house for it is opened to guest on special occasions only. Its contents furniture, figurines, artworks are used to show off one’s status in society. It becomes a grand hall where tertuila (late afternoon parties) and baile (ball) are held. Here, prominent guest of the masters of the house discuss the latest in politics, business and fashion, while the children lead the singing, dancing and playing of musical instruments.  Some of the aesthetic details of a bahay na bato are used mainly for their function. The decorative wooden panels that adorn the walls of the antesala as well as other parts of the house circulate air between rooms. These are called calado or carved wooden screen placed at the ceiling and hung one or two meters down. The exterior corridor by the windows is called volada and is used by servants to pass through rooms of the house, from the kitchen to the dining room or from the antesala to the sala mayor, hidden from the visitors.
The oratorio or prayer room in a bahay na bato is usually located in the entresuelo. However, there are also some affluent families who build the chapel inside the house. Here they gather at night to pray the rosary. But the chapel is also another sign of affluence as gauged from the religious statues and images made of wood and ivory and enthroned in a urna that usually resembles the retablo (altarpiece) of nearby church.
Comedor is the dining room where families and friends gather to feast and drink. It showcases the family’s collection of silver, glassware and porcelain. It has a ceiling fan system called punkah that is made of fabrics and strings manually operated by servants.
 
At the back of the comedor is the cocina (kitchen). It has a banggera or slatted wooden dish rack used for air drying newly washed utensils and tableware before they were kept inside a platera (plate cabinet) or paminggalan (dish rack).
Some heritage towns in the Philippines carry an architectural style distinct from what was prevalent in Manila and most parts of Luzon. Silay, a city near Bacolod in Negros Occidental, is famously called the “Paris of Negros” for its unique Art Deco heritage mansions and structures that survived through centuries. The same style is also evident in some of Iloilo’s heritage mansions such as the famous Molo Mansion, which features some of the classic colonial architecture but with graceful arches, high ceilings, and intricate carvings. Nelly’s Garden, the so called “Queen of Iloilo’s Heritage Houses”, evokes Beaux Art and boast a sprawling garden that was tended by the late Dona Elena Hofilena Lopez.
Though the heritage mansions have been reflections of western architectural styles, they have been proudly made by Filipino hands and artistry. Some design details and furniture are still being produced today, like the kapiya which is a tall and long wooden bench, the sliding windows made with capiz shells for its screen, the intricately adorned baul or wooden chest, the butaca or a chair with long arm rest, the kolumpyo or rocking chair, and our very own latticework called solihiya used on various furniture pieces. Up to now, modern houses carry some elements inspired by the traditional bahay na bato such as the usage of pasamo (windowsill) or barandilla (handrail) by the balconies and stairwells. B (Sorila, 2021)
 
B. HOUSE OF APO CALIGTAN
 
Before the world war 2 broke out in the country, Spaniards have greatly influenced the culture of the Filipinos. One of which is the introduction of architectural designs.
 
In Poblacion, Tadian Mountain Province of all the other post-war houses, there is no distinct house which has significant cultural property and with great contribution to the people of Tadian. A house which was constructed to serve as a residential house to a family which belonged to Don Caligtan and Family but later on became a contributor to the town up its present developing status.
The house owned by a prominent person in the locality in the person of Francisco “Kalbo” Caligtan.
 
In the early 1900’s, when Christianity was welcomed in Tadian, first service was held in this place and 24 people where baptized including some members of the Caligtan household.
When Kalbo was an Appointed Mayor during the American Occupation in 1923-1925, this was where he resided when the municipal seat was still located at Kayan as its municipal capital.
During the world war 2, it became a camp for Japanese soldiers and it is where they housed their captives who were their servants too, and the house also accommodated merchants and travelers.
It survived the world war 2 bombing in Tadian in 1945 with a story related to a death of a Japanese soldier and with lots of shrapnel and bullet holes in its now disintegrating structure.
 
Below also is an excerpt article from the Municipal LGU-Tadian Cultural Heritage Mapping result of 2019-2020.
 
The house is constructed with a design of Spanish and American bungalow described as a low-rise home sporting a pitched rood and a horizontal shape. It stands on a yard or “baliwang” with stone flooring.
Outside the structure is a stone used to contain water for washing of hands and feet of people before entering the house. the front door opens to receiving area or “sala”.
A narra coffin was placed in the sala under a hospital bed where he was sleeping together with another bed for Lakay Kalbo’s wife. A rocking chair or “butaka” was also situated in this area for relaxation.
At the left of the sala is a two-door bedroom. On the right from the sala is a balcony leading to the kitchen and dining area.
The balcony has a short-legged table or “dulang” which was used by the owner and his wife when they dine alone. However, if their rice field workers or “katalonan” will come to visit, they will eat in the dining area.
The exterior position of the house near the kitchen is a washing area or “bangsal” for washing the dishes. Parts of the house namely the flooring, windows and doors are made out of Acacia or “Kalasan” wood and the roof is made of galvanized iron.
 
There is also a smaller structure outside is made out of wood which was used as storage of “palay” or “agamang”. There is also wide portion of the land on the land on the right side of the house where different plants like banana and fruits bearing trees were planted.
 
Also, it is not occupied and there had been no renovations or repairs done to the house even after it survived the second world war and up to this present time.
The minimal historical accounts related to the structure is more to be found out when the project Architectural Documentation, to be granted by the National Commision for Culture and the Arts in partnership with the different stakeholders, be fully implanted as it is seen to be very relevant in discovering our own history.
On the project’s implementation, the building which is now a house for birds and insects and in its deterioration state, the documentation will help the people of Tadian capture and re-value the place and will have basis in restoring its old state.
II. Social, Cultural and Political Implications
 
A. Social Implication/ Relevance 
 
Family and Community
 
The cover shows the Quilip clan from its beginning, Quilip as the root, stands alone. On the top of her are her five children namely Francisco (Caligtan), Marina ( Ngiwa), Maria (Lucanay), Rita (Gamay) and Carolina (Gamya). Over the five children are Quilip’s grandchildren. Ethnic costumes are worn in Kayan and Tadian are wanes(G-String) gabey(Tapis), bagket (belt), and lamma (jacket).
Encircling the Quilip Clan is the Benge (beads), an adornment worn on the women’s head to match their beautiful costumes.
Caligtan the only boy and the oldest in the family was the son of Talangcag from Banao, Bauko, a community leader who was murdered by a townmate.
After years of being widowed, Quilip married Maiyao of Besao, Mt. Province. Living together for a few years, they parted ways when she discovered that Maiyao has another wife with children. However, he left behind a daughter named Ngiwa. 
 
She later married Ballasiw of Banao, Bauko, Mt. Province who bore her a Daughter whom they named Lucanay. Again, they separated because she could not accept his gambling habits.
Longing for a mate, she married for the fourth time Dangos of Kayan. Two girls came out of the wedlock namely Gamay and Gamya. Quilip and Dangos lived happily thereafter. 
Our dear Lola Quilip is not a prostitute as jokingly cracked by her grandchildren beacause she married four different men one after the other and not at the same time. She is an imitation of Elizabeth Taylor although to a lesser degree because while Miss Taylor married eight times. (Of course one after another), Lola Quilip had only four.
This is the reason why she is shown alone and not with the four men of her life.
 
B.  Political Implication/ Relevance 
 
In the establishment of new government post war, the house also served as a Predencia or a Municipal building.
A school, Tadian Elementary School which was also established in the 1500s few meters away from this house. Nonetheless, it but was bombed and restablished after the war. As years passed by and education’s role is gradually acknowledged, the number of students grew bigger but the classrooms were not enough. The house was utilized as an additional classroom for the pupils.
 
 
 
 
References
Burch, M. (2018, November 13). Spanish Colonial Designs. Retrieved from Beuatiful house: http://www.housebeautiful.com/design-inspiration/a25056763/spanish-colonial-design-style/
Gray, L. (n.d.). Cape Cod Architecture. Retrieved from HGTV: https://www.hgtv.com/design/decorating/design-101/cape-cod-architecture
Sorila, F. (2021, may 21). Bahay na Bato:the parts of a stately Filipino House during the Spanish Colonial Period. Retrieved from Tatler: https://www.tetlerasia.com/homes/architecture-design/rediscpvering-bahay-na-bato-the-parts-of-a-stately-filipino-house-during-the-spanish-colonial-period
Zeballos, C. (2012, January 18). Architecturalmoleskine. Retrieved from Blogspot: http://architecturalmoleskine.bloogspot.com/2012/01/colonial-architecture-in-philippines-1.html?=1